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What is Consumer Duty? Explaining the FCA’s Initiative

June 7, 2024June 13th, 2024No Comments

The Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) has embarked on a transformative journey within the financial services sector, driven by the introduction of the Consumer Duty. This set of regulations, solidified in 2022 and scheduled for full implementation into firms’ operations by 2024, represents a pivotal stride towards enhancing consumer protection and nurturing a culture centered around prioritising customer welfare. Setting higher standards and placing consumers’ needs at the forefront lie at the heart of this strategic initiative. The FCA’s vision is to cultivate a landscape where firms compete in the best interests of consumers, understanding their needs with precision and offering unwavering support to ensure positive outcomes. In an era marked by mounting pressures, particularly those concerning the cost of living, the imperative for consumer empowerment and informed decision-making has never been more pronounced. Yet, existing challenges persist, with some firms resorting to misleading practices or offering products and services that fall short of delivering fair value or adequate customer support.

The FCA, through its regulatory and supervisory tools, has long addressed such shortcomings. Under the Consumer Duty, firms are mandated to meticulously assess and demonstrate their commitment to delivering favorable outcomes for consumers. This, coupled with a data-driven approach, promises expedited identification and intervention against detrimental practices before they gain traction. Furthermore, the shift towards an outcome-focused regulatory framework affords firms greater flexibility to innovate and adapt, safeguarding consumers from emerging risks while encouraging entrepreneurial solutions to meet evolving needs. Crucially, the development of the Duty has been a collaborative effort, with extensive engagement across a spectrum of stakeholders including consumer organisations, firms, regulatory bodies, and legal professionals. Through a process marked by dialogue and deliberation, the FCA has endeavored to shape a regulatory framework that not only safeguards consumer interests but also fosters a vibrant, resilient financial ecosystem built on trust and integrity.

Exploring the Consumer Duty

Consumer Principle

At its core, the Consumer Principle mandates firms to act in a manner that consistently delivers favorable outcomes for retail customers. This principle emphasises the imperative of placing customers’ needs at the forefront of every interaction.

Cross-Cutting Rules

These rules provide a framework for firms to interpret and implement the Consumer Principle effectively. They emphasise fair treatment, transparent communication, and unwavering support for customers throughout the entire lifecycle of products and services.

Four Outcomes:

Firms are tasked with assessing and meeting expectations across four critical domains:

  • Fair value: Ensuring consumers receive products and services at fair prices and of high quality, thereby minimising complaints about poor value and unexpected fees or charges.
  • Suitability and treatment: Guaranteeing that consumers are provided with products and services tailored to their needs, characteristics, and objectives, leading to a reduction in complaints about unsuitable offerings or inadequate treatment.
  • Confidence: Empowering consumers with the information and resources necessary to make informed decisions, thereby increasing their confidence and participation in financial markets.
  • Access: Ensuring diverse consumer needs are met, thereby promoting inclusivity and equitable access to financial products and services with access to high quality customer support when required.

The success of the Consumer Duty will be measured through comprehensive monitoring of key consumer outcomes. This includes tracking Financial Ombudsman Service decisions on complaints related to fees, charges, and product/service suitability, as well as conducting surveys to gauge consumer perceptions, trust, and confidence in financial services markets.

Implementation and Compliance

Implementation and Compliance are critical phases in the adoption of the Consumer Duty, requiring proactive measures and strategic alignment within firms’ operations. The Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) emphasises the significance of leveraging data as a cornerstone for effective monitoring of customer outcomes, swiftly identifying potential issues, and taking corrective measures. This data-driven approach enables firms to gain valuable insights into consumer behaviors, preferences, and experiences, empowering them to tailor their offerings to better meet customer needs.

Special attention is dedicated to vulnerable consumers, recognising the importance of ensuring equitable treatment and support across all interactions. By prioritising the welfare of vulnerable consumers, firms demonstrate their commitment to fostering a fair and inclusive financial landscape, where every individual is afforded the necessary protection and assistance.

Firms are urged not to view the integration of the Consumer Duty as a mere compliance exercise but as an opportunity to drive value and enhance their competitive edge. Integrating the Duty into standard operating procedures necessitates a comprehensive review and overhaul of systems and processes. This entails embedding consumer-centric principles and practices into every facet of the organisation, from product development and marketing to customer service and complaint resolution.

By embracing the Consumer Duty wholeheartedly, firms can differentiate themselves in the marketplace by demonstrating a genuine commitment to consumer welfare. Beyond meeting regulatory requirements, firms that excel in implementing the Duty stand to benefit from enhanced customer trust and loyalty, ultimately translating into long-term success and sustainability. Moreover, by aligning their operations with the principles of the Consumer Duty, firms are better positioned to anticipate and adapt to evolving consumer expectations and regulatory requirements, thereby future-proofing their business models.

In essence, the journey towards implementation and compliance with the Consumer Duty represents a transformative opportunity for firms to not only meet regulatory obligations but to also redefine their relationship with consumers, placing their needs and interests at the forefront of everything they do. Through strategic integration and proactive engagement, firms can leverage the Consumer Duty as a catalyst for positive change, driving value creation and fostering a culture of trust, transparency, and accountability within the financial services sector.

Challenges and Considerations

The implementation of the Consumer Duty poses several challenges, including:

Defining and monitoring good customer outcomes effectively: One of the primary challenges lies in articulating what constitutes “good” customer outcomes and establishing metrics to monitor and evaluate these outcomes consistently. Given the diverse needs and preferences of consumers, defining universally applicable standards for good outcomes can be inherently complex. Firms must navigate this challenge by developing robust frameworks that account for variability in consumer circumstances and preferences while ensuring alignment with regulatory expectations.

Navigating subjective judgments inherent in the rules: The Consumer Duty introduces principles and standards that inherently involve subjective judgments, such as assessing the suitability of products and services for individual consumers. Firms must navigate these subjective elements of the rules while maintaining transparency and consistency in their decision-making processes. This requires a delicate balance between exercising professional judgment and adhering to objective criteria to ensure fair and equitable treatment for all consumers.

Leveraging data to evidence outcomes and inform decision-making: The effective implementation of the Consumer Duty relies heavily on data-driven insights to monitor consumer outcomes, identify potential issues, and inform decision-making processes. However, firms may encounter challenges in harnessing and analysing vast volumes of data effectively, especially considering the diverse sources and formats of data available. Moreover, ensuring data accuracy, privacy, and security adds another layer of complexity to this challenge, necessitating robust data governance frameworks and technological capabilities.

Cultivating a culture of accountability and customer-centricity: Implementing the Consumer Duty requires more than just compliance with regulatory requirements; it necessitates a fundamental shift in organisational culture towards accountability and customer-centricity. This entails instilling a deep-seated commitment to consumer welfare at all levels of the organisation, from senior leadership to frontline staff. Cultivating this culture requires comprehensive training, clear communication of expectations, and alignment of incentives to prioritise consumer interests above all else.

Who is Affected?

The impact of the Consumer Duty extends across various stakeholders, including regulated firms such as Currency Cloud who provides our payment services, consumer organisations, policymakers, and industry experts. Its phased rollout underscores the necessity for proactive adaptation within the financial services ecosystem.

Regulated Firms, including those in the e-money and payments sector: Regulated firms form the frontline of implementation, as they are directly responsible for adhering to the principles and standards outlined in the Consumer Duty. This includes traditional banks, fintech startups, e-money institutions, and payment service providers. For these firms, compliance with the Duty necessitates comprehensive reviews of existing practices, systems, and processes to ensure alignment with regulatory expectations. Moreover, regulated firms must integrate consumer-centric principles into their business models, product offerings, and customer interactions to foster trust and meet the evolving needs of consumers in the digital age.

Consumer Organisations and Individual Consumers: Consumer organisations play a vital role in advocating for consumer rights and interests, ensuring that regulatory measures adequately protect consumers from harm and promote fair treatment. The Consumer Duty provides an opportunity for these organisations to engage with regulators, industry stakeholders, and policymakers to shape the implementation and enforcement of consumer protection measures. Individual consumers, on the other hand, stand to benefit from enhanced transparency, fairer treatment, and improved access to financial products and services that meet their needs and preferences.

Industry Groups/Trade Bodies: Industry groups and trade bodies serve as intermediaries between regulated firms and regulatory authorities, representing the collective interests of their members within the financial services sector. These organisations play a crucial role in disseminating regulatory guidance, facilitating knowledge-sharing, and promoting best practices among their members. The implementation of the Consumer Duty presents an opportunity for industry groups to collaborate with regulators and firms to develop industry-wide standards and initiatives that promote consumer welfare and market integrity.

Policy Makers and Regulatory Bodies: Policymakers and regulatory bodies are responsible for crafting laws, regulations, and supervisory frameworks that govern the conduct of firms and protect the interests of consumers. The Consumer Duty reflects a strategic shift towards outcome-focused regulation, emphasising the importance of fostering a fair, transparent, and consumer-centric financial ecosystem. Policymakers and regulators must work collaboratively to ensure that regulatory measures effectively address emerging risks, promote competition, and safeguard consumer interests across all segments of the financial services sector.

Industry Experts and Commentators: Industry experts and commentators, including consultants, analysts, and thought leaders, provide valuable insights and analysis on regulatory developments, market trends, and best practices within the financial services industry. These individuals play a crucial role in informing public discourse, shaping regulatory debates, and driving innovation within the sector. The implementation of the Consumer Duty presents an opportunity for industry experts to contribute their expertise towards enhancing consumer protection, promoting market integrity, and fostering sustainable growth within the financial services ecosystem.

Academics and Think Tanks: Academics and think tanks contribute to the intellectual discourse surrounding regulatory issues, conducting research, and analysis on topics ranging from consumer behavior and market dynamics to regulatory effectiveness and policy implications. The implementation of the Consumer Duty offers academics and think tanks an opportunity to conduct empirical studies, evaluate the impact of regulatory measures, and propose evidence-based recommendations for enhancing consumer welfare and market efficiency. By leveraging their expertise, academics and think tanks can inform regulatory decision-making, promote innovation, and advance the collective understanding of regulatory challenges and opportunities within the financial services sector.


The Financial Conduct Authority’s (FCA) introduction of the Consumer Duty represents a pivotal moment in the evolution of consumer protection within the financial services sector. With its emphasis on prioritising consumer welfare, fostering transparency, and driving accountability, the Duty sets a new standard for industry conduct. As firms navigate the challenges of implementation, they must recognise the Duty not merely as a regulatory requirement but as an opportunity to build trust, enhance customer satisfaction, and drive sustainable growth. By embracing the principles of the Consumer Duty and embedding them within their organisational ethos, firms can contribute to the creation of a financial ecosystem that truly serves the best interests of consumers. As the FCA adopts an assertive stance towards enforcement, the Duty heralds a new era of empowerment for consumers, ensuring that their needs and interests remain paramount in the financial services landscape.

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